First, market analysis of the LED industry 1. The global LED industry is in a period of steady development. From a global perspective, the LED industry is in a period of steady development. At present, the global LED industry can be divided into four regions. First, Europe and the United States, the main direction of general lighting, product characteristics are high reliability and high brightness. Second, Japan is a leader in general lighting and backlight display technology, taking into account general lighting, automobiles, mobile phones and television. Third, Taiwan and South Korea, with backlight display as the main line, including mobile phones, TV, computer backlights, large shipments but low gross margin. Fourth, China mainland, the main business for outdoor display, advertising screen and lighting and other fields.The rapid growth of the global LED market is mainly attributed to the explosive growth of indoor general lighting, building lighting, landscape lighting, backlight and outdoor large LED screens. In the next 3-5 years, with the maturity of technology and the decrease of cost, the market penetration of LED in general lighting will be further improved, and Continuous development of automotive lighting, small spacing LED display and other applications is expected to usher in a new outbreak of the LED industry. According to the data of "China LED Industry Market Research and Development Strategy Research Report 2016-2020" published by China Industry Research Reporting Network, the penetration rate of global LED lighting is about 31% in 2016. It is estimated that the market scale of LED lighting will reach 40.4 billion US dollars in 2017, and the penetration rate will reach 37%. It is expected that the global LED lighting will be combined in 2017-2021. The growth rate is 12%.2. The domestic LED industry has a strong growth rate. The fastest growth rate of LED application lighting is driven by the "National Semiconductor Lighting Project", and the LED industry in China has developed rapidly. From the current global LED market, China, as a global manufacturing base of electronic industry, has become the fastest growing region of the global LED industry, initially forming a relatively complete industrial chain including LED epitaxy, LED chip, LED packaging and LED applications. According to the statistics of China Industry Research Reporting Network, the scale of LED industry in China increased from 350.7 billion yuan to 521.6 billion yuan in 2014-2016, with an average compound annual growth rate of 21.96%. Among them, in 2016, the market of LED epitaxy chips was about 18.2 billion yuan, an increase of 20.5%, the market of LED packaging was 74.8 billion yuan, an increase of 21.6%, and the market of LED application was 428.6 billion yuan, an increase of 23.2%. Second, the LED industry chain introduces that the light-emitting diode is abbreviated as LED, which is made of gallium, arsenic, phosphorus, nitrogen and other compounds. The upstream of LED mainly refers to the upstream epitaxy chip, that is, the chip inside the light emitting diode beads, and some related materials, including: high purity gas, substrate material, MO source, alumina, phosphor, silica gel, gold wire, epoxy resin, silver glue and other materials. The downstream application of LED refers to finished products, including LED display screen, LED lighting products and various LED brightening products. At the same time, the downstream of LED also includes the development of some surrounding industries, such as driving power supply, control system, hardware box, control software and so onarket of LED packaging was 74.8 billion yuan, an increase of 21.6%, and the market of LED application was 428.6 billion yuan, an increase of 23.2%.The output of epoxy resin is steadily increasing. Epoxy resin is an important material for energy-saving LED. Practice has proved that the selection of epoxy resin is an important factor in determining the performance of LED besides the quality of chip itself. Therefore, the packaging process of LED must select different resins according to different use occasions, in order to ensure that the product meets the use requirements to the greatest extent. Epoxy resin is a kind of macromolecular oligomer which contains two or more epoxy groups and takes aliphatic, alicyclic or aromatic compounds as the framework and can form useful thermosetting products through the reaction of epoxy groups. According to the data of "China Epoxy Resin Industry Market Research and Development Prospect Analysis Report 2016-2020" published by China Industry Research Report Network, the output of epoxy resins in China increased year by year from 2011 to 2016. In 2016, China's epoxy resin output was about 1.43 million tons, an increase of 19.17% over the same period last year. The goal of good LED landscape lighting market is to coordinate landscape lighting and landscape, to adapt to "landscape" and architectural characteristics, and to achieve a new level of beautifying the environment. Landscape lighting is the traditional downstream market in the field of LED lighting, and it is also the most mature branch of LED in the field of lighting so far. With a series of advantages such as high efficiency, low energy consumption, safety, reliability, convenient management, outstanding social and economic benefits, LED has successfully occupied the absolute market share of landscape lighting. Landscape lighting, driven by the government, is growing rapidly. It mainly focuses on decorative lighting in public places such as streets and squares, which can save 70% of the electricity. Common landscape lamps and lanterns include: garden lights, footpath lights, buried lights, small spotlights, lawn lights, fast lane tunnel lights, wall lights, sculpture decoration, etc. According to the "Research Report on Market Research and Development Strategy of China's LED Industry 2016-2020" published by China Industry Research Reporting Network, the market scale of LED landscape lighting in China has maintained an increasing trend year by year since 2011. The market scale in 2016 is about 44.5 billion yuan, an increase of 8.80% compared with 40.9 billion yuan in 2015.LED street lamp is a kind of high-efficiency solid-state light source based on semiconductor PN junction. Under certain forward bias voltage and injection current, the holes injected into P region and the electrons injected into N region emit photons by radiation recombination after diffusing into the active region. Electric energy is directly converted into light energy. It is a kind of solid-state cold light source, which has the characteristics of environmental protection, pollution-free, low power consumption, high light efficiency and long life. Therefore, LED street lamp will be the best choice for energy-saving transformation of road lighting. As the main body of urban lighting, urban road lighting has achieved rapid growth with the rapid development of urban construction in China. In 2008, China launched the pilot demonstration project of "Ten Cities and Ten Thousands" LED application. The goal is to light 6 million LED street lamps in 21 demonstration cities nationwide by the end of 2011, 1 million LED street lamps in 2009-2011, 2 million LED street lamps in 2009-2011 and 3 million LED street lamps in 2012. After the start of the project, more than ten cities, such as Beijing, Dongguan, Xiamen and Shijiazhuang, have begun to invest in new or renovation projects of LED street lamps. Driven by the policy of "Ten Cities, Ten Thousands of Lights", the LED street lamp Market in China will maintain sustained growth. In recent years, the market penetration (installation quantity) of LED street lamp in China has been increasing. According to the statistics of China Industry Research Report Network, the market scale of LED street lamp in 2016 is about 29 billion yuan.LED display screen is a kind of flat panel display, which consists of a small panel of LED modules. LED display screen is generally used to display text, image, video, video signal and other information. LED display screen is an early product in the whole LED industry chain, which has maintained rapid growth in recent decades. With the development of LED display technology, the corresponding product specifications and standardization are at a higher level. According to the data of China Industry Research Reporting Network, the overall scale of LED display application industry in China continued to increase in 2016. The total annual market of the industry was 33.2 billion yuan, an increase of 3.75% compared with 32 billion yuan in 2015, and the growth rate was slightly lower than that in 2015.Above: The latest industry information issued by Beijing Huajing Viewpoint Information Consulting Co., Ltd.
The measurement of luminosity, chroma, and other indicators is an indispensable part of lighting design. In this era of advocating humanistic lighting, it is necessary to add the measurement of humanistic parameters in the design process. This paper gives a brief introduction to this topic.First of all, we must emphasize that our measurement tools and software are constantly updated. These updates enable users to obtain more functions and provide more information to customers. So it is important to keep up with the update. Here we mainly talk about the most frequently used photometer updates in lighting design.Lighting Passport produced by Asensitek, for example, adds the computational functions of Circadian Stimulus (CS) and Equivalent Melanopic Lux (EML) on the basis of its spectral analysis function. These new functions, combined with traditional illumination (Photopic Lux), can give lighting designers a more intuitive concept to understand the specific effects of light on human function.By using photometers, we can evaluate the effects of many light sources on human bodies, such as LED lamps, mobile phones, tablets, TV sets, etc. Although these effects can be predicted by software at the design stage of the project, the actual verification requires the use of photometers.For the parameter of CS, the basic design requirements are as follows: keeping CS > 0.3 during the day and CS < 0.1 after dusk. For the EML parameter, WELL building standards require people to have EML of 200-250 in the activity time, and less than 50 after dusk.Of course, instrument and standard guidance are not enough, we need to use the right method to collect data. It should be noted that when we measure CS and EML, it is inappropriate to measure only CS and EML values on the horizontal plane such as the ground or desktop. Because we have to make it clear that although sunlight on the skin can affect human function (for example, sunlight on the skin can stimulate vitamin D production), only light entering the human eye can affect the circadian rhythm of the human body. Therefore, when measuring CS and EML values, it is necessary to place the photometer's photosensitive probe in the position of the human eye, and the probe plane must be parallel to the plane of the human eye, that is, perpendicular to the horizontal plane. As for the placement height, the average eye height can be calculated according to the average height of people. And since people will walk in many different spaces, and may stay in each space for a considerable period of time, lighting designers need to consider these factors comprehensively to estimate the impact of lighting conditions on people in design projects.To sum up, the evaluation of CS and EML values by instruments in lighting design is helpful for designers to make designs that are more conducive to human needs, and increasing the measurement function in this area has become an inevitable choice for manufacturers of photometric measuring equipment.Finally, a small suggestion is given. For those who work with computers for a long time, a LED lamp with adjustable color temperature and brightness can be installed in the direction of the computer screen, but not directly illuminated to the face to provide environmental lighting. This will not produce dazzling light, but also help to maintain the normal circadian rhythm of the human body.
From ancient times to modern times, human beings have used various ways to light the night, from the pyrotechnics of the ape-man period, the lamp oil of the Middle Ages, to Edison's electric bulbs, as well as modern fluorescent lamps and LED lights. But now, MIT has successfully developed a plant lighting technology that allows plants to automatically glow, illuminate the night, and last for more than a dozen days without plugging in electricity at all.Luminescent plants use the principle of fireflies to emit light, which can last for several days. In 2017, Professor MIT successfully created glowing plants by inserting luciferase in watercress. Luciferase is also a substance that makes fireflies glow. It reacts with luciferin and glows. Researchers made nanoparticle containers of silica, polylactic acid-glycolic acid (PLGA) and chitosan. When injected into plants, PLGA slowly releases fluorescein and reacts with fluorescein enzymes. In the experiment, although watercress can glow continuously for 3.5 hours, the brightness can not be maintained, and the initial peak will quickly darken. Therefore, the researchers added photocapacitor particles to store the peak light energy, and then released energy smoothly, so the plant's luminous time increased from 3.5 hours to days, or even weeks. Luminescent plants can reduce carbon emissions, but planting in buildings is the key technology According to MIT, human lighting accounts for 20% of global energy consumption and produces 200 million tons of carbon dioxide annually. Therefore, if light-emitting plants are produced in large quantities, they will replace most lamps and reduce global carbon emissions. Sheila Kennedy, professor of MIT Architecture Department, said that as luminescent plants need to collect light sources to emit light, buildings must provide sunlight, as well as soil and compost to maintain plant growth, so how to grow plants in buildings will be a key factor in the future application of plant lighting technology. In the future, the team will study new ways of injecting nanoparticles into plants to make them glow throughout their life cycle. In addition, the team will experiment with large plants such as trees. Perhaps in the future, there will be no street lights on the road, but a number of luminous street trees, guiding the way home in the middle of the night.
Japanese plant factories use Philips LED light supplement system to increase production and reduce costsShinnippou has been operating 808 plant factories in Yaizu, Shingoka Prefecture, Japan since January 2014. This large plant factory covers an area of about 5,000 square meters. The facility uses artificial lighting system to produce four kinds of salad vegetables.Katashi Kai, general manager of Shinnippou Agricultural Management Department, described the advantages of plant factory production: "The greatest advantage of using supplementary light system in plant factories is that it can ensure stable production and supply throughout the year, free from changes in climate and environment. In addition, through advanced cultivation management and health control methods, the pollution of dust, pests and foreign bodies can be completely eliminated, and high-quality, very safe vegetables can be produced without pesticides. At the same time, Kai mentioned that the biggest constraints and challenges facing plant factories are equipment costs and operating costs.When the plant plant plant operated, the fluorescent lamp was initially used as artificial light source. According to Kai, it was too expensive to introduce LED as a supplementary light source at that time, and there were some concerns about its reliability. For this reason, the initial three-year operation plan covered the study of fluorescent lamp and LED lighting effects.The study found that fluorescent lamps have a variety of problems. For example, the heat generated by fluorescent lamps can burn plant leaves and shorten the shelf life of vegetable products; the light intensity of fluorescent lamps will decay after about six months due to the limitation of their service life; moreover, even if there is no accident, there is still a risk of foreign body pollution due to the damage of fluorescent lamps alone.Kai said: "LED has no such problems or risks. Therefore, we decided to use Philips LED light supplement system, because in the medium and long term operation, the cost of using Philips LED equipment and operation costs will be greatly reduced, and compared with other brands of LED equipment, Philips LED finally won the test.About 12,000 Philips LED products were installed in the first plant plant facility, which began operation in 2014, and nearly the same number of Philips LED products were installed in the second plant facility, which was completed in 2017. Eventually, compared with fluorescent lamps, electricity costs were reduced by about 40%, while vegetable growth was accelerated by 20% to 30%. Higher growth rates meant higher yields and lower production costs in the facility, while the taste and nutritional content of vegetables remained unchanged. In a word, after the introduction of Philips LED light supplement system in 808 plant factory, the production is increased and the cost is greatly reduced.Mr. Kai looks forward to the future: "As climate change makes it more and more difficult to grow vegetables in the field, we expect that the production of vegetables in large plant factories will become the focus of attention in Japan and overseas in the future. Therefore, we hope to share our technology and experience with you, so that vegetable produced by plant factories can become a common standard food for consumers."Vegetables produced in plant factories may become standard ingredients around the world in 10 years." He said.